Du Bois's own formulation of the Talented Tenth had as its social base a minuscule black petty bourgeoisie
at the turn of the nineteenth century that found its aspirations of recognition and advancement in white America blunted by a brutal racism.
While the working class has shrunk slightly as part of the overall workforce (from 40 percent in 1976 to 31 percent in 1996), the petty bourgeoisie
remains the largest economic stratum with 40 percent of the workforce in petty commodity "relations of production" in 1996.
He has to tolerate the friendly superiority of Swedish petty bourgeoisie
toward the youths from the ex-Soviet republic.
is really a multiplicity of religions that are distinct and often contradictory: there is a Catholicism of the peasant, a Catholicism of the petty bourgeoisie
and urban workers, a Catholicism of women and a Catholicism of the intellectuals" (12).
These exclusions and her folding of Jewish gangsters, the Jewish petty bourgeoisie
, and aspiring capitalist assimilationists into a collective socialist identity were all unnecessary for her argument about the primacy of radical politics and a communal ethic of care and reciprocity among Eastern European Jews at the turn of the century.
As a protagonist of the petty bourgeoisie
Khomeini opposed the reforms, declaring it illegitimate in light of Islamic tradition and calling upon people to oppose the reform which culminated in a February-March 1963 uprising.
If that is so, then the ethnonational exclusiveness (economic nationalism) and the bazaar mentality of peripheral elites (whose members are recruited from the bureaucratic petty bourgeoisie
or the former communist nomenklatura) may prove to be major obstacles for the integration of these peripheral countries into the mass industrial society of the 21st century.
S are opposed to Affirmative Action (which served mainly the petty bourgeoisie
, and white middle-class women more than anyone else); well they should try Full Employment.
The cultural establishment just doesn't have the time or the money for the petty bourgeoisie
Because agriculture remained at a subsistence level and the timber industry was monopolized by an outside firm the local petty bourgeoisie
of millers and merchants remained weak and played only a minor role in local exchange and credit.
As members of the petty bourgeoisie
, intellectuals identify their own class interests with those of the state, whose "neutrality it supposes to be akin to its own, since it sees itself as a 'neutral' class between the bourgeoisie and the working class, and therefore a pillar of the State--'its' State.
The other two are the counter-revolutionary role of the African petty bourgeoisie
following decolonization, and the need for a transformative leadership in order to achieve the African national project of political self-determination, economic self-reliance, and pan-African solidarity.
In the present political configuration, that would mean the Tea Partiers, most of whom belong to the petty bourgeoisie
of private-sector worker bees, retirees, and small businessfolk.
And the petty bourgeoisie
leaders at this point are confronted with a daunting choice: either betray the revolution by switching alliance with imperialist capital, or remain faithful to the anti-imperialist goals of the struggle (a kind of suicide mission) as a class in order to be reborn as revolutionary workers, completely identified with the deepest aspirations of the people to which they belong.
Second, "The small householders, not seeing the perspective of their economy as that of an individual economy, infect with their lack of faith and pessimism not only individuals from amongst the small holders, but also the intelligentsia who are joined with the petty bourgeoisie