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A careful search for significant incompetent perforating veins (IPVs) into the GSV should be made.
Secondary varicose veins are caused by valvular damage after Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) and recanalisation that gives rise to incompetent deep and perforating veins.
9] In Europe, sclerotherapy with polidocanol foam under duplex ultrasound guidance has become standard treatment for intracutaneous telangiectases, subcutaneous varicose veins, transfascial perforating veins, and venous malformations (Fig.
The doctor has joined the Department of Vascular and Transplant Surgery, offering a variety of treatments including Endovenous Laser and Radio Frequency treatment of varicose veins, conventional surgery for varicose veins, ultrasound guided foam and liquid sclerotherapy of varicose veins and perforating veins, treatment of venous leg ulcers, post phlebitic syndrome, leg swelling, cellulitis and lymphedema, deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
The perforating veins contain valves which normally only permit flow from the superficial to the deep system.
Blood can also flow from the superficial to deep veins via communicating or perforating veins that pierce the fascia at the level of the ankle, calf or thigh.