To be sure, several penologists
have recommended resurrecting parole.
As mainstream penologists
lamented the failures of mass imprisonment, the punishment system often reincorporated the ideal of rehabilitation into institutional narratives.
The progressive proposals discussed by penologists
in the first decade of Soviet rule were mostly stillborn, and it was the concentration camps, forced labor, and executions of the Red Terror that provided the models for the Stalinist labor camp.
First appearing as a total institution in the form of Zebulon Brockway's New York Reformatory in 1876 in Elmira--"the first really large prison with a total program for the confinement and transformation of inmates"--it had expired by the 1960s, by which time reformers, penologists
, and legislators on the left and right sought to practice rehabilitation and punishment in smaller, more numerous, decentralized, and presumably easier-to-control "facilities" and "correctional institutions" (11).
It is easy to notice that, especially after the foundation of the modern Romanian state, the echoes of the European thinking reverberated in the perspective of penologists
in Bucharest and Iasi, being materialized in the legislation of the country, as well as in the foundation of some penal establishments where provisions of law had to be applied.
for many years have questioned the morality of long prison terms as well as their effectiveness, the principal motivation for the latest surge of sentencing reform has been fiscal.
A severe rebuttal came from the Boalt Hall Law School penologists
Franklin Zimring and Gordon Hawkins, who argued in a 1988 article published by the National Council of Crime and Delinquency that Zedlewski overstated the net benefit of incarceration by inflating the numerator (crimes per offender and social costs per crime) and deflating the denominator (annual cost of confinement).
It was studied by leading European jurists and penologists
during the first half of the nineteenth century.
A letter posted on the internet by a California prison security officer reflects a view of prisons that is more common than some progressive penologists
would care to admit.
Rehabilitative programs have begun to once again gain credibility among penologists
as a way to reduce recidivism, (111) and an increasing number of states have been willing to reward voluntary program participation with sentence reduction.
These assets should be developed in executives, justice officers, penologists
, probation officers, social workers, forensic scientists, special case officers, and investigators.
I agree with the Court as to the value and humaneness of liberal use of probation reports as developed by modern penologists
, but, in a capital case, against the unanimous recommendation of a jury, where the report would concededly not have been admissible at the trial, and was not subject to examination by the defendant, I am forced to conclude that the high commands of due process were not obeyed.
441) As prison discipline was reduced to a "managerial" problem, she concludes, "the goal of social justice" envisoned by the new penologists
was "eclipsed by that of institutional stability.
Criminologists and penologists
have argued for years that incarceration has a lasting influence on inmates' social and psychological wellbeing (Toch 1998, 1992).
Yet, the most heated disagreements between contemporary penologists
came between supporters of the Auburn system and the Pennsylvania system.