News of the mishap further galvanized Wichern's opponents, who now included the entire liberal establishment--the liberal press, important penologists
such as Mittermaier and Holtzendorff, and famous prison directors from Baden and Saxony.
For want of more promising method of reducing crime, penologists
proposed using actuarial predictions to maximize the amount of crime prevented by locking up a given number of prisoners.
As late as 1889, prominent penologist
Ivan Foinitskii succinctly wrote that they "simply do not exist.
Similarly, James Jacobs challenges liberal penologists
to demonstrate that current prison policy
Until recently, the topic of prison sex has received only scattered attention among sociologists and penologists
To Rafter the entire enterprise of diagnosing and treating defective delinquents can be reduced to an attempt at "social control" of deviance, aimed at addressing middle-class fears of social and political disorder, and administered by occupational groups (psychiatry, social work, penologists
, psychologists, and so on) seeking status, funding, and professional sites of power, whether inside or outside institutions.
Although subsequent social historians and penologists
have criticised the intellectual partiality of some of his conclusions, there can be little doubt that Foucault single-handedly kick-started contemporary academic interest in the subject.
The fifth explores how men's sexist anxieties distorted their accounts of women's behavior, and the sixth how penologists
and reformers alike constructed a largely mythic image of the prostitute.
A few penologists
belong to the tougher-than-nails school.
Although the damning facts were in print and known to penologists
, officials unanimously claimed "it may be a problem elsewhere, but not in our well-run system.
What does make sense is something penologists
have understood for years.
With NIBRS, lawmakers, academicians, sociologists, penologists
, and the American public can now better assess the Nation's crime problem by using the extensive data supplied by the law enforcement community.