Ancient Greek displays three major complement clause types, infinitive clauses, participial
clauses, and complementizer + indicative clauses.
Then, in later Aramaic, when participial
expressions for the present and past imperfective became clearly distinguished, the use of the simple participle with verbs introducing direct speech persisted as a vestige of earlier usage.
Example (7b) is semantically ill-formed because the italicized participial
complement signals direct observation while the prepositional phrase, "from the fact that her car was parked," signals that the observation was indirect.
izan 'be', 3sg da in [13b]) but also in case marking on nominals and cross-referencing on the verb as well as in a number of other syntactic rules, such as the formation of participial
In terms of the participial
forms of the first verb mentioned, this claim holds true for the seventeenth century American English, where only one endingless form was attested.
They developed obviously from the participial
forms of verbs with monosyllabic stems, cf.
This point can be illustrated by the participial
nominalization in Even as in (13) which can be used both as an action nominalization and as a result nominalization (cf.
The example in (2) depicts faulty noun phrase parallelism which is caused by the incongruity that the present participial
phrase "abusing children" brought about when contrasted with the abstract nouns, "reform" and "waste".
Here the exact expression of temporal relations requires two participial
When we classify phrases according to this four-type system, we lose the possibly greater clarity and interest we might get from knowing just what sorts of grammatical phrases we are talking about - participial
, adjectival, vocative, nounal, predicate, or whatever.
Along with the well-known replacement of the OA [Old Aramaic] perfect and imperfect conjugations by participial
constructions, these shared innovations in the pronominal system make it clear that Turoyo and NENA together form a single branch of the Aramaic family, separate from documented varieties of OA on the one hand and from modern Mandaic and Ma'lula on the other.
Purely adverbial NPs and PPs were not taken into account, and sentences introduced by a sentential element (a clause, an infinitival, or a participial
structure) were also excluded.
If we can rely on the casual test of "very"-intensifier modification, then the form heated remains the past participle of HEAT (since not *a very heated room but rather a well heated room is acceptable), and crowded should be a derived participial
adjective CROWDED (thus allowing for a very crowded room).
That is, the participial
absolutive construction is grammatical with telic unaccusative verbs, as in (17) but not with atelic unaccusative verbs, such as verbs of existence, durative verbs, and iterative verbs (i.
Even though in the burgh court records there are mostly past and participial
constructions, the present tense appears as well.