In conclusion, this first record of digenean trematode larvae in the gonad of Megapitaria squalida indicates that these bivalves serve as an intermediate host of the parasite and that high infection density causes parasitic castration
, thereby affecting the reproduction of the host.
, growth, and sex steroids in the freshwater bonefish Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) infested by Riggia paranensis (Cymothoidea).
The effect of parasitic castration
on the growth rate of infected individuals may further depend on host population density and parasite species.
Effects of parasitic castration
on the salt marsh snail, Cerithidea californica.
Numerous morphological and sexual anomalies including congenital malformation, intersexuality, gynandromorphism, parasitic castration
and sex change have been described in calanoid copepods (e.
can be viewed as a type of resource allocation where the parasite shifts host resources from reproduction to growth, ultimately enhancing parasite reproduction.