To add contrast to external structures, such as parapodia
, branchiae, and papillae, the specimens were dyed with methyl green, Rose Bengal and an aqueous solution of methylene blue.
Articulated prostomial appendages, lateral dark spots between posterior parapodia
(which occur in the present material), light, tridentate subacicular hooks, and tridentate compound falcigers.
Morphological and behavioral differences among the three species of orbiniidae Naineris dendritica Leitoscoloplos pugettensis Orbinin johnsoni Broad, shovel-shaped Narrow pointy head Narrow pointy head head Lives in sand Lives in mud Lives in sand Long parapodia
to Short parapodia
to Short parapodia
to body width body width body width No ventral papillae No ventral papillae Ventral papillae No active twisting Active twisting Active twisting No internal body No internal body Internal body movement movement movement
First three parapodia
reduced, with two or three spinigerous chaetae and no cirri (Fig.
Therefore, if the animal is able to move during fluorescence measurements, it will be able to regulate incident light by closing/opening the parapodia
, introducing potential sources of error when calculating rETR (= E x [increment of F]/[F'.
is characterized by having 15-16 thoracic chaetigers with four or five rows of uncini and up to three papilliform postchaetal processes on neuropodial lobes by the abdominal parapodia
bearing flail-tipped neurochaetae, and by the presence on anterior-most abdominal chaetigers of interramal cirri and a low number of subpodial and stomach papillae.
Tubes are built by positioning sediment and fragments of shell, algae, or detritus (detected with the antennae) using the jaws and palps; the material is then cemented into place with a mucous secretion excreted from glands located at the base of the anterior parapodia
Width was measured at setiger 5; anterior (setiger 10), median (setiger 30), and posterior (atokous, setiger 84; heteronereis, setiger 57) parapodia
Antennae, palps, and initial metameres bearing parapodia
often differentiate prior to metamorphic loss of the prototroch.
Number of chaeta decreasing progresively from eight in anterior parapodia
to six in posterior ones.
Species were identified from original descriptions based on morphology of the dorsal vessels, radulae, and parapodia
Analogously, the Caribbean sacoglossan Elysia zuleicae engages in group mating behavior that approximates penis fencing, and individuals flap their parapodia
to swim away when another penis makes contact with their body, to avoid receiving an injection of sperm (Krug, per.
1 g and tagged, for later identification, by attaching color-coded beads to the animal's parapodia
with a small suture of 000 silk.
Region A with 9 chaetigers, parapodia
uniramous except A9, with neuropodia as uncinal plates, notopodial lobes short and simple, lanceolate chaetae just projecting from dorsal to distal surface, lacking cutting spines.
Flabelligera, Pherusa, and Diplocirrus) is protected by a cage of modified setae from the first few parapodia
(Spies, 1975; Blake, 2000).