This supports Tu's (2002) study, which indicated that emoticons and paralanguage
made the conversation more comfortable for participants (Tu).
Last, but not least, paralanguage
 is an additional important factor to keep in mind in effective communication.
The notion is that lovers should be ever ready for sex, "sex" should be effortless, requiring only paralanguage
rather than verbal communication, everyone ought to have great sex, and those who do not attain it are somehow defective.
5) See for example, Andrea Ciccarelli's suggestions for "stressing the diachronic development of a language as culture," from paralanguage
and onomatopoeia, and etymology, to proverbs (565-571); Robert J.
In order to address this problem, the CoSESM model adopts the Basic Triple Structure (Poyatos, 1984) in which language, kinesics, and paralanguage
are integrated in a unitary communicative system.
As Polhemus (2000, cited in Palloff & Pratt, 2007) stated, students were able to give their points of view when they used personal forms of address, acknowledgment of others, expressions of feeling and humor, sharing, and the use of textual paralanguage
symbols such as emoticons, font colors, different fonts, capitalization, and symbols or characters for expression in their post interventions.
Pennycook (1985) explains that paralanguage
refers to all aspects of nonverbal communication and it is used in a broad sense, but not as an interrelated subsystem comprising the overall communicative competence.
Ability to use paralanguage
(elements that accompany the spoken word: tone of voice, pitch and intonation, speed, loudness) Ability to use 'the body language' to communicate (kinesics): facial expressions, eye contact, posture, orientation, proximity, fine movement, gross movement and clothing and artefacts.
Quite apart from the spoken or verbal form, the non-verbal form, otherwise known as paralanguage
, is another important medium that is exploited to articulate ideas.
Because the case is written in dialogue format, students can experientially enact the sales behavior and encode the dialogue with paralanguage
and other non-verbal communication which emphasizes the influence that such encoding can have on communication outcomes.
There is a difference] between language (what is being said) and paralanguage
(how something is said)" (2011:34).
More specifically, fully 55 percent of the emotional impact of a communicator's message is nonverbal, with 38 percent accounted for by paralanguage
and only 7 percent explained by spoken words.
In contrast to these fanciful renderings of place, there is an aggressive naturalism to the dialogue, and McConnell's ear for the paralanguage
of the different characters is evident early on.
Both spoken and written messages, plus the accompanying paralanguage
, can be translated semiotically, and equally referred to nonverbal languages.
Tu and McIsaac (2002), who describe CMC as lean, found students used "emoticons and paralanguage
to compensate for the lack of social context cues" (p.