In Panel A of Table 2, we summarize the types of alleged accounting manipulations used by sample firms to overstate earnings.
That is, we assume that at the time they chose to overstate their firm's earnings, managers did not expect to reverse the earnings overstatement at some future period.
These estimates suggest that firms bear significant costs when they overstate their earnings.
In sum, while on average we find firms paid taxes to overstate earnings, we also find that our sample has substantial heterogeneity in the tax treatment of overstated earnings.
Although we believe that there is good reason not to view the overstatement of earnings and, thus, the taxes as temporary, the sensitivity estimates in Table 4 provide a floor of the amount of corporate resources expended to overstate earnings.
Francis may overstate
his case in the film, and he too easily interprets the film's proto-feminist slant as a statement on Biberman and Sondergaard's relationship, but things were indeed dire for the filmmakers.
That is clearly the case with current proposals to change the Consumer Price Index, triggered by the Consumer Price Index Revision Commission report that the CPI overstates inflation and the search for a politically workable balanced 2002 budget deal.
However, the CPI overstates inflation by undercounting quality improvements and people's ability to purchase different products as relative prices change, as well as the effects of new products and new distribution channels (such as outlet stores).
FAA proposal overstates
risk of explosion, European carriers say.
Families, naming patterns, institutions, mobility, and relative economic autonomy (which Berlin often overstates as "independence") measure the rise and fall of slaves' predicament.
If anything, Many Thousands Gone overstates the autonomy of the enslaved within a brutal institution.
First, he argues that the metaphor of capital as blood vastly overstates
the importance of money capital and savings to new investment and growth.
Skerry also overstates
the tension between assimilation and the desire to maintain a cultural identity.
Greenspan has said publicly for years that he believes the Consumer Price Index overstates
If the CPI overstates
inflation for future policy considerations, it has also overstated inflation for historical comparisons.