In previous UCSF research employing high-throughput drug-screening technology that Chan designed, he and colleagues discovered a cluster of compounds, all of which target proteins known as muscarinic receptors, that promote remyelination the process by which cells known as oligodendrocytes
will rewrap themselves around axons to repair the myelin sheath.
It can breach the blood-brain barrier, enter the brain and kill oligodendrocytes
The examination involved looking at spinal cord cells called oligodendrocytes
The new technique involves directly converting fibroblasts -- an abundant structural cell present in the skin and most organs -- into oligodendrocytes
, the type of cell responsible for myelinating the neurons of the brain.
are thought to be involved in diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, which are characterized by deterioration of myelin, and it is hoped that discoveries involving these glial cells may one day lead to therapies.
H]2 activity may also provoke demyelination, as seen in myelin oligodendrocyte
glycoprotein (MOG)-induced EAE in Brown Norway rats.
Because disruption of thyroid hormone signaling is suspected to be involved in impairment of intellectual development by PCBs (reviewed by Zoeller and Crofton 2000) and because the timing of oligodendrocyte
development seems to be dependent on TH (reviewed by Konig and Moura 2002), we investigated the occurrence of oligodendrocytes
during differentiation of NHNP cells.
For MBP to enter myelin so rapidly, not only MBP mRNA, but also all other components needed for its translation, must be transported from the oligodendrocyte
soma to each myelin sheath assembly site.
The lack of tests to evaluate the myelination of axons by oligodendrocytes
in human cell cultures is a significant impediment to developing drugs that stimulate regeneration of myelin in MS.
Precursors Use Vasculature Like Jungle Gym
Sharon Way, PhD, a Society-supported postdoctoral scholar working in the laboratory of Brian Popko, PhD, of the University of Chicago Department of Neurology, is researching a different approach to increasing remyelination--by promoting oligodendrocyte
Europe, and Australia, the chapter topics include the comparative biology of Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes
, the molecular organization of the oligodendrocyte
and myelin, genetics, immunobiology, glial progenitor cells and the dynamics of the oligodendrocyte
and its myelin in the aged and injured central nervous system, and oligodendroglial pathology in multiple sclerosis.
precursor cells (OPC): Acting as a form of brain stem cell, OPCs give rise to oligodendrocytes
, astrocytes and neurons.
Muscarinic Receptors Regulate Oligodendrocyte
Differentiation and Myelination Screening large numbers of molecules that may be useful for stimulating myelin repair in MS.
Using the cells' forerunners, oligodendrocyte
precursor cells, from rats and mice, the researchers found that benztropine can steer these cells to become myelin-making oligodendrocytes