The presence of an anteroposteriorly short neural arch
seems to exclude this caudal vertebra from Theropoda, and its general morphology more closely resembles that of sauropod middle and posterior caudal vertebrae.
The fatigue strength of the lumbar neural arch
In fact, the neural arch
and neural spine characteristics of Geringophis are so unique among small erycinine snakes that Sullivan and Holman (9) questioned the placement of the genus in Erycinae.
Therefore, changes are related to enlargement/reduction and consequent deformation of the neural arch
and spine, without marked changes at the vertebral bodies.
The connective tissue and the outer layer of cartilage were removed from each vertebra and neural arch
The combination of characters that identify the fossil to Leptotyphlops include absence of a neural spine; zygosphene wide and thin; prezygapophyseal facets elongated and strongly anteriorly directed; posterior ends of neural arch
extended medially; condyle and cotyle dorsoventrally compressed; hemal keel indistinguishable from centrum; and no subcentral ridges.
The typical vertebra consists of a body (centrum) in front and a neural arch
behind it, through which the spinal cord runs.
3), and a small fragment of the neural arch
of the contiguous anterior vertebra.
1A, B) are in strong contrast to what is seen in Siren: widely divergent aliform processes with a thin shelf of bone between them that projects off the posterior lateral margins of the neural arch
Preural centrum (PU1) is well distinguished with its ventral parhypural (PH) and dorsal neural arch
The neural arch
is not highly vaulted and the subcentral ridges are relatively deep.
MPZ 2001/130 b is interpreted as a cervical vertebra, cervical vertebrae sensu Andrews (1913) being the vertebrae in which the parapophyseal process is located on the centrum and not associated with the neural arch
Occasionally, facet joint and/or posterior neural arch
defects may also cause this syndrome as well.
2): neonates, vertebrae small with round neural canals that are larger than the condyles, and thin vertebral features, especially the neural arch
buttresses (bone area that connects the neural arch
proper and the centrum) and the zygosphenes; juveniles, vertebrae larger with larger and more arched neural canals that range from about the size of the condyles to slightly smaller, and thicker neural arch
buttresses and zygosphenes; and adults, vertebrae largest with arched neural canals that are much smaller than the condyles, and thick, robust neural arch
buttresses and zygosphenes.
One of these remains, together with previously unidentifiable fragments, has allowed us to reconstruct most of the neural arch
of the axis.