Infestation of an introduced host, the European green crab, Carcinus maenus, by a native symbiotic nemertean
egg predator, Carcinornertes epialti.
Whether these relationships are indicative of inbreeding depression for the nemertean
, however, is uncertain.
Many traditionally established nemertean
genera are non-monophyletic, according to molecular phylogenetic analyses, and are in need of revision (e.
While this is the first study to examine the physiological tolerance of a nemertean
egg predator in the context of a hypothesized salinity refuge, our results do confirm what little is known about salinity tolerance in other nemertean
Moreover, molluscs and annelids form a clade with brachiopods, phoronids, and nemerteans
, with ectoprocts more distantly related, but exact relationships between these taxa tend to vary based on the data and analytical approaches used (Kocot, 2013; Struck et al.
Thus, to assess alternative types of oocytesu1/4 analyses began to be conducted about 15 years ago on marine nemertean
worms, which are sometimes confused with alike-sounding nematodes.
Vestigial prototroch in a basal nemertean
, Carinoma tremaphoros (Nemertea; Paleonemertea).
KEY WORDS: nemertean
, Malacobdella arrokeana, Panopea abbreviata, entocommensalism, geoduck, Panopea
In the nemertean
, Cerebratulus lacteus, injecting aqueous extracts from sperm can trigger repetitive [Ca.
beta]-catenin is required for the establishment of vegetal embryonic fates in the nemertean
, Cerebratulus lacteus.
Immediately after the measurements, animals were dissected, and examined for the presence of the parasitic Nemertean
worm, Malacobdella grossa.
collaris after ciliation are in the range of 4-5 [micro]m, whereas those for the nemertean
Carinoma tremaphoros, the polychaetes Nereis limbata and Polygordius sp.
, Carcinonemertes carcinophila (Kolliker).
clause in winter), polychaete and nemertean
larvae, amphipod zoeae, barnacle nauplii, mysid larvae of shrimp, cyprids, crab zoeae, gastropod veligers and fish larvae (Yamazi 1962, Jeffries 1964, Croker 1965).
development is traditionally categorized into "indirect," meaning development via a long-lived plank-totrophie pilidium larva, as in most pilidiophoran species for which development is known (e.