The purpose of this phase was to ensure that the putative aversive stimulus (the tone) functioned as a negative reinforcer
He maintains that "shame" can be a potent negative reinforcer
in the realm of having out-of-wedlock children, and it could be pointed out that it is a potent reinforcer in some of the areas of mental illness as well, especially in cases such as adjustment disorder and others that simply are catch-all psychiatric classifications that could describe almost anyone with problems in living.
Drugs of abuse are positive and negative reinforcers
(Everitt & Robbins, 2005; Winger, Woods, Galuska, & Wade-Galuska, 2005).
For one thing, Skinner's (1953) definition of punishment as the response-contingent presentation of a negative reinforcer
or the removal of a positive reinforcer requires that negative and positive reinforcers are actually identified initially through negative and positive reinforcement procedures, respectively.
A negative reinforcer
"strengthens" behavior that reduces an aversive outcome (e.
The above principles are based on the hypothesis of a personal history of positive and negative reinforcers
and, inherently, on a complex set of expectations derived form them.
Causes of CA are a topic of debate among communication scholars with some proponents arguing for nurture-based causes, such as positive or negative reinforcers
, culture modeling, and other environmental influences (Daly & Stafford, 1984, Richmond & McCroskey, 1998).
The use of choice-making procedures, during both assessment and treatment, permits applied investigators to evaluate more precisely how positive and negative reinforcers
interact relative to problem and appropriate behavior.
Gang membership in Las Cruces, then, depended on positive reinforcers for the establishment of discriminative stimuli; whereas, in Phoenix, nongang members looked more to negative reinforcers
as reasons not to join gangs.
These so-called negative reinforcers
have a subliminal effect on how satisfied the staff is with its work environment.
Arthur Staats has redefined positive and negative reinforcers
in terms of positive and negative emotions.