is defined as congenital absence of iris sphincter muscle which occurs rarely and shows autosomal dominant inheritance (1-4).
1,2) Therefore, although studies have been performed to evaluate the effects of intracameral and topical nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents on avian pupils, mydriasis
is inconsistent, and the side effects associated with administration can be severe.
For example, most patients with a combination of MA and morphine had normal pupil size and did not exhibit mydriasis
typical of MA abuse or pinpoint pupils typical of morphine abuse.
The product is intended for use in cataract surgery and lens replacement procedures to maintain mydriasis
(pupil dilation), prevent miosis (pupil constriction), and to decrease postoperative eye pain.
The clinic evolution was stable until the third day when there was psycho-motor unrest followed, a few hours later, by a rapidly progressive towards aggravation comatose state, thus on the fourth day, she was in a Glasgow 5 coma (motor 3, verbal 1, ocular 1), with a fixed left mydriasis
, with head and eyeballs deviated to the right, photo-motor and corneal reflexes bilaterally sketched; on minor pain stimuli, or spontaneously, she presented decerebration crises intricated with decortication crises (upper limbs in flexion, lower limbs in extension or flexion).
15 minutes-10 hours Mechanisms GABA antagonism, unabated depolarization, tonoclonic seizures, striated muscle damage, rhabdomyolysis Presenting Symptoms Profuse salivation, (mostly GI) vomiting followed by convulsions, no fever Neurotoxicity Mydriasis
, apnea, status epilepticus Miscellaneous Diaphoresis, flushing, Toxicity increased bronchial secretions Myotoxicity Severe tonoclonic seizures, brown urine (myoglobinuria) Laboratory [up arrow][up arrow][up Findings arrow] CK, CK-MB < 5%, normal troponin Morbidity Hypoxic brain damage, CRF possible in survivors Mortality = Case 25-50% Fatality Rate (%) CK: Creatine kinase; CK-MB: Creatine kinase-Muscle/Brain fraction; CRF: Chronic renal failure; GABA: Gamma-aminobutyric acid; GI: Gastrointestinal; LDH: Lactic dehydrogenase.
6 ) Such misuse is concerning because diphenhydramine overdose can lead to delirium, confusion, and hallucinations, tachycardia, seizures, mydriasis
, xerostomia, urinary retention, ileus, anhidrosis, and hyperthermia.
Other SSRI-related adverse effects include mydriasis
, increased intraocular pressure, glaucoma, and oculogyric crisis.
stramonium intoxicated patient "will present with notable mydriasis
, dry and flushed skin and urinary retention.
Ocucyclo - an anti-cholinergic agent for mydriasis
(dilation of pupil) and cycloplegia (paralysis of ciliary muscle for use in eyesight examination);
Marked weakness, disorientation, anxiety, mydriasis
, tachycardia and hyper-reflexia reportedly developed in mice 30 min to 4 h after ingestion of hallucinogenic or magic mushrooms like Psilocybe, Panaeolus, Copelandia, Gymnopilus, Pluteus, and Conocybe .
True CN III palsies can present with some or all of the following deficits: vertical and horizontal diplopia, ptosis, a down-and-out position of the affected eye, and mydriasis
Other adverse effects include delayed wound healing, mydriasis
, aponeurotic ptosis and peri-ocular dermatitis.
Abstinence syndrome (withdrawal) debuts a few hours after the last administration and is characterized by influenza-like symptoms: rhinorrhea, lacrimation, excessive sweating, shivering, vomiting, mydriasis
, anorexia, irritability.
Some opioid analgesics alone (in particular meperidine and propoxyphene, no longer manufactured) or in combination with anticholinergic agents (some cough and cold preparations, the antidiarrheal agent diphenoxylate/atropine) do not result in miosis, but instead cause mydriasis
(enlarged pupils), perhaps based on competing anticholinergic activity.