associated microorganisms provide protection against pathogenic microorganisms, via competition for nutrients and space, the production of inhibitors and antimicrobial compounds (Broekaert et al.
This finding further supports the convergent abilities of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus to mutualistically
associate with their respective nematodes (Chaston et al, 2011).
In such network technological fields, mutualistically
interdependent cooperative firms produce individual components of a larger technological system (Barnett, 1990; Garud and Kumaraswamy, 1995a; Langlois and Robertson, 1992).
Trollius europaeus interacts mutualistically
with three species of Chiastocheta flies that pollinate and oviposit into flowers (Pellmyr 1989, 1992).
Just as species within a community can coevolve either mutualistically
or antagonistically, so too can nonallelic, interacting genes within the genome of a single species.