acnes, it is considered a mutualistic
part of the skin flora, acting against more pathogenic organisms on the skin, such as S.
Future studies examining the role of abiotic factors affecting these 2 food resources consumed by ants, which generally co-occur in the same community, would help to further characterize these mutualistic
Determinants of plant-animal coevolution: the case of mutualistic
dispersal of seeds by vertebrates.
Demodex mites--Commensals, parasites, or mutualistic
In particular, the whitebark pine has evolved a mutualistic
relationship with a remarkable bird called the Clark's nutcracker (Nucifraga colum-biana).
Another study found that removal of blattabacteria, which are mutualistic
uricolytic bacteria harbored in cockroach fat body, resulted in smaller and slower-maturing insects with diminished fecundity (Brooks and Richards 1956).
For instance, it has been reported that this raptor may use alternative mechanisms to obtain food, such as kleptoparasitism (Garcia and Biondi 2011) of mutualistic
associations with larger raptors (Baladron et al.
In Rindos' model, some wild food plants (but not all) respond positively to human collecting behaviour, and so entered into a mutualistic
feedback loop with people, who became their major dispersal agent.
Mistletoes, which have a have a mutualistic
relationship with avian vectors, may benefit from vectors visiting nearby trees to spread ingested fruits and seeds to other potential hosts near the source tree (Sutton, 1951; Mathiasen et al.
Resources, relationships, practices, and institutions, which are universally necessary as means for the survival of human life and the development of its capacities for experience, thought, mutualistic
interaction, and practical creativity, have instrumental life-value.
I find it helpful to review mutualistic
relationships at the conclusion of the experiment.
A healthful diet leads to mutualistic
bacteria, while an unhealthful diet and processed foods predispose to gut pathogens.
The nine chapters in the sections on General Biology and Ecology review an array of topics for which gobies are already well-known, such as the mutualistic
association between gobies and alpheid shrimps, the cleaning behavior of Elacatinus species, and the excavation of burrows by mudskippers, and those for which they are less so, such as their life as predator and prey.
Over 80% of all land plants associate with mutualistic
fungi within their roots, which demand carbon nutrition in return for mineral nutrients and water.
relationship: centred on shared decision-making, with equal power, and often seen as the best type of relationship.