Bilinguals may not always be paid more, but they often are and frequently get hired over monolinguals
with similar credentials.
We asked English and German monolinguals
to watch a series of video clips that showed people walking, biking, running, or driving.
In Wales there was a stringent piece of research by Prof Virginia Gathercole who compared Welsh/ English bilingual and monolingual
Despite such aims, what has actually happened, he argues, is that bilingualism has been largely marginalised, such that we barely support any minority language development, we disconnect English as an additional language from a view of bilingualism, and we have inadvertently (perhaps) prioritised elite bilingualism for a privileged few through second language learning for presumed English-speaking monolinguals
Whether they were born in a mixed marriage where parents spoke different languages, or they acquired a new language on immigration, bilingual children outperform their monolingual
peers at schools, Dr Bak said.
There have not been many studies on hedging and boosting in research articles written by monolingual
and bilingual EFL learners in one hand, and male and female EFL learners on the other hand.
The research team selected Hungarian sounds the participants had never heard before, and that neither resembled Spanish nor sounded like English, to establish a level playing field for monolinguals
Combining behavioural measures from cognitive psychology with neuro-imaging methodologies (EEG and MEG) will provide new insights into time-course of brain region activation as monolinguals
and bilinguals process language.
So the vocabulary size is just one of the aspects where there will be a gap between a multilingual who knows a given language as one of a few languages and a monolingual
who knows the culture related to that language in a more comprehensive way.
Moreover, as our cultural landscape continues to change, educators must be critically cognizant of a new "special need," that of educating monolingual
children and families about other cultures, through diverse languages--mirrors of our cultural pluralism.
Third, the participants were monolinguals
for whom Spanish was their L2.
Otherwise, differences between monolinguals
and bilinguals are not typical (Pena, Bedore, & Rappazzo, 2003) and extrapolations tend to be restricted by the various measures of bilingualism employed.
They also entered high-skill occupations at twice the rate of English monolinguals
He said: "While Welsh and English bilinguals earn on average 60 to 75p an hour more than monolinguals
, the advantage is not strongly associated with the use of Welsh at work but rather simply that they are able to speak both languages.
First of all, adequate methodological controls have only served to ensure that the bilinguals and the monolinguals
to be used as the control group are matched on such variables as socioeconomic status, sex, and age.