At altitudes below 15 km, gas molecules
are closely packed and each molecule
travels only a few dozen nanometers before it collides with another.
For example, researchers have learned that the "CD28" molecule
on T cells must bind to the "B7" molecule
on other immune cells in order for the T cells to be fully primed to attack the nervous system.
The menthol in the wintergreen is a fluorescent molecule
," says Hartel.
This vital molecule
, which is the parent, or precursor, of all other phytonutrients, just happens to be the same molecule
we call blood sugar.
Despite the promise of single molecule
methods, there are a number of technical challenges that must be met to optimize these studies.
Rubber is composed of extremely long molecules
or chains with low inter-chain attraction.
Sickle-cell anemia, for example, was a result of a single specific amino acid being erroneously located in the structure of hemoglobin: Where a molecule
of glutamic acid should be, a molecule
of valine appeared instead.
Third party testing showed that lengthy exposure to AAGP(TM) maintained cell integrity and function even with high concentrations of the molecule
Then they bonded the collagen with a lipophilic, or oil-clinging, molecule
that helps it penetrate the epidermis.
Scientists in France and Germany who created and tested the molecule
say that it and similar custom-made structures might aid tasks such as building molecular-scale circuitry, depositing arrays of atom clusters with special optical or magnetic properties, and cleaning up debris on nanoconstruction sites.
How microwaves get water molecules
moving to heat food in a flash.
The partnership will allow the ISB access to Helicos' True Single Molecule
Sequencing (tSMS(TM)) technology and protocols for use in its scientifically groundbreaking research projects.
At the beginning of the dance, a catalyst molecule
joins with one starting molecule
, forming a chemical ring.
Using only 5mg/ml of the GCD-5-A molecule
, skin cells stressed with 2-hours of UV-C radiation were preserved to almost 100% viability for 6-days while all the untreated cells were dead.
Rather than X rays, the source of information is radiation emitted by an exquisitely fast vibration of electric charge within the molecule