In view of this, I assume that (49)-(55) are all analyzed as containing an empty volitional or future modal verb
, as Huang (1988) suggests.
The use of the modal verb
must in the previous example is not appropriate, since the speaker does not mean to express obligation over the hearer, and the benefit is not for the speaker.
Moreover, this view of to as a modal preposition establishes a semantic relationship between to and the modal verbs
, a relationship that may be reflected in the syntactic similarities between them which have been sometimes noted in the literature (eg.
6 In particular, the temporal head here situates the modal verb
in the objective time axis, and in independent sentences this normally means simultaneity with it; that is, we convey the speaker's attitude towards the proposition at the moment of speech:
In Andrea (1;8-1;11), the only positive modal verb
used is moet.
In general, the majority of works based on historical texts, although these are not purely speaking diachronic studies, focus on modal verbs
rather than on other aspects of stancetaking.
Modal interpretations of root infinitives have not been investigated in any great detail; but it might be noted that both B and C are able to add the modal verb
The modal verb
pidama 'must' (47) in its turn originates from the lexical verb pidama with the meaning 'keep; think' (48), (49).
Table 1 Modal auxiliaries and modal verbs
in Estonian Meaning Modal Auxiliary (raising) Modal Verb
(control) necessity pidama tulema, maksma, tarvitsema, pruukima possibility voima, (saama) tohtima evidential naima, paistma, tunduma (6) Table 2 The interaction of voice and modals subject raising subject control impersonal necessity pidama tulema, maksma, *peetakse, (affirmative) tarvitsema, *tullakse, pruukima *makstakse, *tarvitsetakse, *pruugitakse necessity ei tarvitse, ei tarvitseta, (negative) ei pruugi ei pruugita possibility voima, tohtima, voidakse, saama tohitakse, saadakse evidential naima, paistma, naidakse, tunduma paistetakse, tundutakse
Each of the two embedded clauses contains an AUX: a modal verb
for (8a) and an aspectual marker for (Sb), but both are acceptable, contra Huang's prediction.
That is, in the synchronic behaviour of the category there is chaos and variety or, in other words, multiple meanings and uses for each individual modal verb
, whereas in its diachronic behaviour the system or category of English modal verbs
shows more stability and systematicity, both structural and semantic.
In the 1950s negation of the modal verb
was already more frequent, e.
For example, the modal verb
roce, roca `want-SG-MS/FM' occurs largely without any overt subject in present tense in adult as well as child Hebrew, rather like English wanna.
The fourth paper, "On MV/VM order in Old English", focuses on the so-called "modal constructions", consisting of a modal verb
(M) and its infinitival complement (V).
As the data described included everyday conversations and direct requests scarcely occurred, the typical modal verb
constructions in the conditional (for example Kas te voiksite mulle oelda 'Could you tell me', Kas te saaksite mulle ulatada 'Could you pass me' etc.