Although transport in the reverse direction is physiologically not relevant regarding in vivo exposure to NPs, because it occurs only in the maternal circulation
, reverse ex vivo placental perfusion is a common method to evaluate the mode of transport of many drugs across the human placenta (Nanovskaya et al.
Breastfeeding during therapy with biologics is not generally recommended, although the levels of the drugs detectable in breast milk are significantly lower than those in maternal circulation
The Kleihaure-Betke test (KB test) was done on the mother's blood, which revealed that maternal circulation
had 6% of fetal blood, which is nearly 140 ml of fetal blood.
Less than 2% of acarbose is absorbed, but higher amounts of its metabolites are measured in the maternal circulation
Fetal blood receives oxygen diffusing across the placenta from maternal circulation
Methods to increase the percentage of free fetal DNA recovered from the maternal circulation
The insulin resistance in late pregnancy (15) increases the glucose availability in the maternal circulation
by reduced peripheral glucose uptake, increased glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
It is not known if permethrin is excreted in breast milk, but it is considered compatible with breast-feeding because amounts found in maternal circulation
and its rapid breakdown suggest that the risk to a nursing infant is negligible.
2) Estimates of the number of fetal cells in the maternal circulation
vary depending on the gestational age and the technique used to obtain the cells.
The license agreement grants Ikonisys a worldwide license under Abbott patents for the manufacture and sale of DNA probes in conjunction with Chromotest(TM), a revolutionary test for the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities using fetal cells from the maternal circulation
The placenta is a discoid-shaped organ which serves for the exchange of materials between the fetal and maternal circulation
systems during pregnancy.
Fetomaternal hemorrhage, or loss of blood from the fetal to the maternal circulation
, is four to five times more common in the traumatized patient than in uninjured controls.
The Phase I data demonstrated that CFS can recover fetal cells from maternal circulation
, and that the recovered cells can be used for prenatal diagnosis.
14] Xanthine oxidase is thought to play a fundamental role in free radical induced tissue damage in human placenta and as a result of under-perfusion, necrotic processes could lead to discharge syncytiotrophoblast microvesicles into maternal circulation
The discovery of free fetal DNA (ffDNA)  in maternal circulation
(1) marked the beginning of the noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) era, and allowed the development of the first noninvasive prenatal tests.