He also noticed a close association of the Golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes
, a hybrid structure he called GERL, which helped clarify lysosome
The accumulation of CHQ in tissues may result from inhibition of anti-malarial microsomal metabolism in kidney cells and potentiate its uptake in lysosomes
in the cytoplasm (61).
Now we know that arsenite destabilizes lysosomes
, a part of a cell that contains certain enzymes, which, when released, often kill APL cells.
Like AO, ammonium chloride becomes trapped and concentrated in lysosomes
as a consequence of low pH, but its accumulation raises the pH of the lysosomes
Given that during synthesis of the C/Fe particulates, the material is subjected to extreme acidification procedures, the acidification reached in a lysosome
would not be sufficient to decompose the particle.
This shift to alkalinity reduces the activities of lysosomal proteinases and results in less-than-optimal protein hydrolysis in the lysosome
Exogenously administered lysosomal enzyme re is taken up in cells through cell-surface mannose-6-phosphare receptors, and transported to the lysosome
in order to degrade the toxic build-up of accumulated metabolite.
Importantly, not only did VAL-1221 reduce lysosomal glycogen accumulation as effectively as rhGAA (current enzyme replacement therapy or ERT) but it was also demonstrated to penetrate living cells independent of the mannose-6-phopsphate receptor, the mechanism of cell entry associated with current ERT which directs enzyme to the lysosome
To investigate lysosome
function under oxidative stress, we analysed lysosomal gene expression in SHY5Y cells and primary neurons under oxidative stress.
Autophagy is the process by which waste is taken to (or taken into) a cell's lysosome
In afflicted individuals, the lysosome
produces too little of an enzyme that is necessary for the break-down of these materials, resulting in unwanted accumulations in the cells and tissues, which can lead to neurological disease and a range other complications.
This then merges with a lysosome
, a cell organelle containing many different enzymes that are specialized in breaking down biomolecules.
The enzymatic defect occurs in catalyzing the first step of mannose-6-phosphate synthesis, a step that is necessary to target a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes to the lysosome
As stressed cells lose their dye at a faster rate than nonstressed cells the rate of NRR in the lysosome
can therefore be correlated to the overall stress of the animal (Harding et al.
is responsible for converting cell waste into reusable matter for cell function.