The vestibule is a normal anatomic component of the lower esophageal sphincter
and is bordered superiorly by a muscular A ring and inferiorly by a mucosal B ring at the squamocolumnar junction (Z-line) (Figure 2).
Lower esophageal sphincter
resting pressures from 6-25 mmHg were considered normal; LES relaxation less than 90% and LES residual pressures greater than or equal to 8 mmHg were considered abnormal.
Determinants of gastroesophageal junction incompetence: Hiatal hernia, lower esophageal sphincter
, or both?
Hormones during pregnancy also cause the digestive system to work more slowly and make the lower esophageal sphincter
relax more often.
The two main patterns of lower esophageal sphincter
(LES) dysfunction are hypotensive LES and pathologic transient LES relaxations (tLESRs).
The data show that cisapride, for example, enhances antro-duodenal coordination and gastric emptying (Fraser and others 1993), stimulates propulsive motility patterns in the human jejunum (Coremans and others 1988), accelerates intestinal transit (Fraser and others 1993), and increases lower esophageal sphincter
pressure (Smout and others 1985).
The Enteryx procedure, which takes less than 30 minutes to perform, involves injecting a liquid compound into the lower esophageal sphincter
during an endoscopy.
The Stretta procedure uses radiofrequency energy to "scar down" the lower esophageal sphincter
and has been shown to reduce the number of relaxations and decrease the size of the lumen space (4).
Aerobic activity also decreases lower esophageal sphincter
pressure, increasing risk of erosive esophagitis.
Situated at the junction of the esophagus and the stomach, the lower esophageal sphincter
valve stays closed most of the time and only opens up to let food pass down.
When the lower esophageal sphincter
(LES) is weakened or relaxes too frequently, acid can flow back into the esophagus.
Q: Will pain decrease the lower esophageal sphincter
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that affects the lower esophageal sphincter
(LES)--the muscle connecting the esophagus with the stomach.
The underlying problem in reflux disease is a damaged lower esophageal sphincter
, the barrier that keeps the contents in the stomach from flowing into the esophagus.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a chronic, often progressive disease resulting from a weak lower esophageal sphincter
that allows harmful gastric fluid to reflux into the esophagus, resulting in both pain and injury to the esophageal lining.