Most of the vocabulary is original Xhosa terms, loan translations and semantic extensions with few borrowed words.
Other methods include loan translation, semantic extension and compounding (examples in Table 1).
Methods of terminology formation Terminology word Formation method Explanation Example Borrowing A term is borrowed with oparesheni: operation its meaning and dhokoteraldhokota: 'Africanised' doctor Loan translation Form and meaning of the kahuku mhezi (kahuku): word in the source chicken pox [huku-- language is kept but chicken, mhezi--rash] the word is translated ronga mhuri: family using words from the planning [ronga--plan target language (v), mhuri--family (n)] pfundohudyu: hip joint [pfundo--joint, hudyu- -hip] duramazwi: dictionary [dura-- store (n) or explain (v), mazwi--words] Semantic extension The meaning of a word kucheka: to cut [now is modified or extended also means to operate] to accommodate a new kuvhiya: originally meaning or use just meant to cut up an animal.
The total amount of loan translations or calques is 36:
Moody (1996: 406) deletes loan translations from his list on account of the following reasons:
He further illustrates this point by referring to some expressions that are regarded loan translations by the OED but not by Webster's third new international dictionary of the English language and vice versa.