It would be difficult to determine this type of spread preoperatively, as tumor just extends along lactiferous duct
without mass-forming effect or induration.
Benign pathologies that present within the main lactiferous ducts
are intraductal papilloma and ductal ectasia.
The structure of a normal rat mammary gland is composed of a single primary or main lactiferous duct
that branches into secondary ducts from which TEBs and the alveolar buds (ABs) are formed.
Microscopically, the nipple adenoma exhibits epithelial hyperplasia arising from a lactiferous duct
displacing the nipple stroma.
Lymphatic route is common and usually due to retrograde extension from cervical, mediastinal or mammary group of or may be via infection through skin abrasions or opening of the lactiferous ducts
at the nipple.
those of mammary Paget's disease ascend to the epidermis from lactiferous ducts
, whereas those of EMPD originate in the epidermis itself.
The glands that produce milk (mammary glands) that are connected to the surface of the breast by the lactiferous ducts
may extend to the armpit area (axilla).
The high GGT activity in human breast milk may reflect activity in the terminal and lactiferous ducts
of the breast, which may facilitate the transport of essential proteins into milk (6, 7).