It would be difficult to determine this type of spread preoperatively, as tumor just extends along lactiferous duct
without mass-forming effect or induration.
The structure of a normal rat mammary gland is composed of a single primary or main lactiferous duct
that branches into secondary ducts from which TEBs and the alveolar buds (ABs) are formed.
Microscopically, the nipple adenoma exhibits epithelial hyperplasia arising from a lactiferous duct
displacing the nipple stroma.
The glands that produce milk (mammary glands) that are connected to the surface of the breast by the lactiferous ducts
may extend to the armpit area (axilla).
The high GGT activity in human breast milk may reflect activity in the terminal and lactiferous ducts
of the breast, which may facilitate the transport of essential proteins into milk (6, 7).
Inverted nipples are quite common and are simply a variation of the norm and occur because the lactiferous ducts
that tether the nipple are too short.