A second test in May 2009 is believed to have been about two kilotons
, National Intelligence Director James Clapper told a Senate committee in 2012.
The company plans to increase name-plate capacity at its polyols plant in Terneuzen, The Netherlands by 180 kilotons
per year, and at its propylene glycol facility in Stade, Germany by 80 kilotons
Similar techniques could detect argon-37 from a nuclear bomb, even though a mere 15 cubic centimeters of the gas- "the volume of a Ping-Pong ball"- would be produced per kiloton
of explosive yield, he explains.
Recognizing the limitations on the numbers and locations of sensors, international negotiators have opted for a system that-in theory-can detect unmuffled explosions with yields down to roughly a kiloton
, says Bratt.
The source, who is said to have direct knowledge of the message and is close contact with both Beijing and Pyongyang's top officials, said that North Korea's future nuclear tests would be much larger, with a device yielding 10 kilotons
, compared to the most recent test which was 6-7 kilotons
is equivalent to 1,000 tons of TNT.
seismologists should be able to reliably detect tests as small as 1 kiloton
, which would enable verification down to that level, says Adrian DeWind of NRD.
According to Hannon, an unmuffled 1 kiloton
(KT) explosion, for example, might produce body waves-- seismic waves that travel down through the earth's mantle and crust--with magnitudes between 3.
With the present state of technology, most experts agree that seismic networks can easily detect events well below the 150 kiloton
(KT) limit of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT).
Perhaps this phasing out of larger weapons would be beneficial to the world if all states possessing nuclear weapons of over 20 kilotons
volunteered to destroy them.
Most of them are chargers with a power of 10 to 20 kilotons