The next step is to figure out if there were enough compact galaxies around to ionize
the early universe.
In the plasma field, which is a charged cloud of gas, oxygen ionizes
and turns into ozone.
These charged reaction products ionize
the fill gas producing charged particles that are subsequently detected.
The intense optical filaments can be used to ionize
molecules and atoms thus producing related emissions and they can simultaneously generate a very broad and continuous optical spectrum (referred to as white light or continuum generation).
It was only after these stars generated enough ultraviolet radiation to break apart, or ionize
, the hydrogen atoms that the light could shine through and illuminate the cosmos.
The specific voltage needed to ionize
a particular gas is an identifying signature, says Nikhil Koratkar of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, N.
To fully ionize
helium, a massive star must be extremely hot.