The team found increased levels of the cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-1-beta
in the skeletal and cardiac muscle of mice that received lipopolysaccharide, yet among those that received vitamin E, levels of these cytokines were significantly lower than those of the placebo group.
In test-tube experiments, sorghum bran significantly reduced white blood cells' production of several inflammation-linked chemicals, including the immune-system activators tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1-beta
Specifically, pirfenidone decreased white blood cell production of tumor necrosis factor-beta and interleukin-1-beta
, which each signal production of the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta.
P38-alpha mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase has been shown to modulate the activity of key pro-inflammatory pathways including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1-beta
(IL-1-beta) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
Caughey of Royal Adelaide Hospital in South Australia and her coworkers played with the type-but not the quantity-of fat in the diet in hopes of cutting the body's production of human necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1-beta