So, connection with the ingroups
, those groups with which one can identify, is emphasized in these three questions.
In such circumstances, individuals tend to define themselves in terms of their social identity shared with ingroup
49) See Nilanjana Dasgupta, Implicit Ingroup
Favoritism, Outgroup Favoritism, and Their Behavioral Manifestations, 17 SOC.
Far from it: Becker's classic economic theory of discrimination explicitly stated prejudice would often reflect preferences for some ingroup
(thereby disadvantaging all outsiders, not some narrow subset), (188) and Epstein's more recent economic treatment defends discrimination largely on the ground it is efficient for people to act on preferences and familiarity with people like themselves.
or outgroups and favor members of the ingroup
2012) have greatly changed our understanding of ingroup
We targeted the mitochondrial protein coding gene nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) for all of our samples, while for a select subset of ingroup
samples (Table 1) and the two outgroup taxa we also included two nuclear introns, the fifth nuclear intron of the transforming growth factor 62 (TGFb2) and the fifth intron of beta fibrinogen (Fib5).
People attribute UH emotions mostly to the ingroup
rather than outgroup, while such a bias does not occur regarding NUH emotions.
For the phylogenetic analysis, the ingroup
included one haplotype from the mitochondrially rather homogeneous species (McClure-Baker et al.
21) Because whites remain the dominant social class in the United States, their ingroup
preferences, if acted upon, could cause discriminatory treatment of persons of color even in the absence of conscious bias.
We usually think first of demographic characteristics like age, race, sex, religion and ethnicity as establishing an ingroup
, but there are also ingroups
based on occupation, neighborhood and schools attended, among other things.
lngroup bias: Though the motivation for preferential treatment of members of one's own group may seem obvious, there exist certain kinds of ingroup
bias that operate completely on an unconscious level.
Overlap of self, ingroup
, and out-group: Pictorial measures of self-categorization.
For the primordialist, ethnic group is a communal entity possessing certain common objective factors such as language, myth of common descent, culture, sociopolitical organisation and a homeland, all of which provide the basis for subjective separatist definition as an ingroup
vis-a-vis an outgroup.
Tajfel (1982) suggested that a fundamental feature of social identity is the categorisation of oneself as a member of an ingroup
, while non-members are distinguished as outgroup members.