The disease leads to ineffective erythropoiesis
, severe anemia, bone marrow expansion, skeletal deformity, increased gastrointestinal iron absorption and the patient requires regular blood transfusion and iron-chelating therapy throughout life from early childhood (1-3).
The consequences of ineffective erythropoiesis
on hepcidin expression thus appear to trump the consequences of excessive iron stores.
So direct destruction and ineffective erythropoiesis
does not adequately explain the cause of anaemia in malaria.
Large numbers of imperfect red cells are destroyed in the bone marrow, giving rise to ineffective erythropoiesis
, which is such a prominent feature of the disease.
Anemia occurs in several forms and has more than 20 different causes, including blood loss, hemolysis (the breakdown of red blood cells and release of hemoglobin), ineffective erythropoiesis
(insufficient red blood cell production), neoplasia (cancer), parasitism and chronic infection.
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies of the bone marrow commonly leading to severe and chronic anemia due to ineffective erythropoiesis
(red blood cell formation).