The narrative attributed to Simon, unlike usual "free indirect discourse
," is distinctive not by characteristics of speech but by its underlying focalizing patterns and judgments, and even though Grace's character is uneducated and presumably speaks with at least a trace of Irish dialect, her first-person narrational diction is mostly undistinguishable from Simon's upper-class, highly educated "thinking" style.
But the narrator stands in the wings, wielding her indirect discourse
with a vengeance.
For Pasolini the filmmaker, an answer proposed itself: in the authors of cultures past--voices that echo pre-modern, prebourgeois experience--whose words maintain the power to engage a contemporary audience through the filmmaker's use of them in free indirect discourse
As a narrative technique, free indirect discourse
(FID)--encompassing both free indirect speech (FIS) and free indirect thought (FIT)--serves a variety of functions.
Barnes' narrative technique of free indirect discourse
certainly challenges the readers' ability to empathize with Miss Moss, perhaps more intensely in this passage about her marriage than any other passage.
The hallmark technique of Austen's mature writing, known as free indirect discourse
(FID), or style indirect libre in French, is responsible for what has become known as the "inward interest" of her writing.
12) More significantly, however, the relatively regular modes of discourse established in part one are now disturbed by much more frequent shifts from one character's consciousness to another's, as well as by more frequent examples of indirect discourse
and even some longer passages characterized by direct discourse.
The rest of Nordan's fictional community also exhibits strong connections to traditionally Southern indirect discourse
Bakhtin defines, according to Charles Lock, a "Chalcedonian, two-voiced, double-natured discourse" (98) that dispenses with clear markers between self-contained and singular voices, and especially in free indirect discourse
, insists on "the incarnation of language" (111).
But at the same time it is precisely this form that permits us to preserve the expressive structure of the character's inner speech, its inability to exhaust itself in words, its flexibility, which would be absolutely impossible within the dry and logical form of indirect discourse
Allan Ingram and Randall Stevenson identify what I regard as the most important aspects of the function of narrated monologue or free indirect discourse
in Lawrence's novels, when they observe the narrator's tendency to "take for himself the freedom to shift between authorial assertion and thoughts that are unquestionably the character's own, or even the thoughts of more than one character"; (50) and that "Lawrence's writing destabilises the ego, dissolving any easy, secure sense of identity in the voice of author or character, increasingly fused together in various shades and tones of intermingling.
In a passage of Free Indirect Discourse
(FID) the narrator reports:
Why are we sometimes duped by Jane Austen's narrator then, believing that free indirect discourse
is absolute truth?
The formal development of the third-person narrative and free indirect discourse
play a particularly important role in understanding the perspective opened by this "interval.
On Speaking Thus: The Semantics of Indirect Discourse