Flier and his lab have long studied this hormone, which is mediated by the hypothalamus
However, these bone marrow cells produce a bone marrow-specific variant of BDNF, one that is different from that produced by the regular microglial cells already in the hypothalamus
Among the various parts of the brain, the hypothalamus
of rats exposed to the higher dose had greater accumulation, with at least a 3-fold increase compared with other brain areas.
When they inhibited the protein that causes inflammation in the hypothalamus
, they were able to prevent insulin resistance.
Control animals showed either no positivity or an occasional and often questionable positivity for albumin outside the hypothalamus
While the function of MCH is unknown, it is produced in the hypothalamus
, the area of the brain that is thought to be the control center for weight regulation, and therefore must be viewed as a "potentially important" regulator of weight gain, Maratos-Flier noted in the report, published in the journal Nature.
Oleoyl-estrone is believed to be a signaling molecule that acts on the hypothalamus
to communicate satiety.
Glucose but not fructose ingestion reduced the activation of the hypothalamus
, insula, and striatum-brain regions that regulate appetite, motivation, and reward processing; glucose ingestion also increased functional connections between the hypothalamic-striatal network and increased satiety," the researchers said.
To investigate further, he and his colleagues prepared thin hypothalamus
slices from young rats and then used electrodes to record the activity of individual Hcrt/Orx neurons.
Gorski and colleagues (3,17) reported that the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA) in the rat hypothalamus
is several times larger in males than in females.
Stein's quest dates back to 1991, when the journal Science published LeVay's study claiming to find substantive differences in hypothalamus
size between gay and straight men.
Daily intake of food is driven by oscillating expression of genes that drive and suppress appetite in the hypothalamus
Several years ago, for example, Clifford Saper of Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston and his colleagues showed that a portion of the hypothalamus
known as the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) acts as a sleep switch.
In previous studies, we reported that the levels of aromatase activity in the brain of medaka were significantly higher than those in the gonads and that activity was specifically localized to areas of the brain that contained the hypothalamus
However, he cautions that because BDNF's functions are so widespread, a good drug candidate would need to closely target only BDNF-expressing neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus
, thus limiting potential side effects.