Hypercalcaemia occurs in about 10% of the patients with sarcoidosis and hypercalciuria
is about three times more frequent and are due to dysregulated production of 1,25-(OH) 2-D3 (calcitriol) by activated macrophages trapped in pulmonary alveoli and granulomatous inflammation.
Dent disease is characterized by low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria
, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and progressive renal failure (Devuyst & Thakker, 2010; Lieske et al.
Diet-induced metabolic acidosis promotes low urine pH, hypercalciuria
, and hypocitraturia, predisposing to uric acid and calcium kidney stone formation.
results due to the opening and closure of K+ channels which is under control of intracellular calcium and cell ATPase.
(excess calcium in the urine) is thought to be partially mediated through the insulin/ glucagon pathways, which are required to metabolize carbohydrates and can result in hypersaturation of urinary calcium with a concomitant increase in calcium-oxalate stone formation (as well as calcium urate and calcium phosphate).
Due to the unknown effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation (VDCS) on the risk of developing hypercalciuria
and subsequent de novo stone formation, we examined the impact of maintenance doses of vitamin D (VD) and calcium on urinary calcium excretion and de novo stone development in VDI patients with a history of urolithiasis.
1 Multiple risk factors predispose patients to recurrence such as abnormal anatomy, family history of stone disease, environmental conditions and metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalciuria
(35%), hyperoxaluria (19%), hypocitraturia (27%), hyperuricosuria (18%), and a low urinary volume (56%).
The most common adverse reactions associated with Natpara and occurring in greater than 10% of individuals were: paresthesia, hypocalcemia, headache, hypercalcemia, nausea, and hypoesthesia, diarrhea, vomiting, arthralgia, hypercalciuria
and pain in extremity.
Mechanism of hypercalciuria
in genetic hypercalciuric rats: inherited defect in intestinal calcium transport.
Dent's disease is a rare recessive X-linked renal tubular disorder characterized by low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteinuria, hypercalciuria
, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, hypophosphatemia, rickets and slowly progressive renal failure.
(Ca >300 mg/day) was considered an indicator of high sodium intake (21).
1,2) There are several metabolic disturbances leading to renal stone formation, including hypercalciuria
, hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, hypocitraturia, and hypomagnesuria, which also have a definite role in stone composition.
The relationship between urinary calcium, sodium and potassium excretion and the role of potassium in treating idiopathic hypercalciuria
Women who had secondary osteoporosis related to estrogen deficiency, an eating disorder, an endocrinopathy, celiac or gastrointestinal disease, hyperparathyroidism, marked hypercalciuria
, a low serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<20 ng/mL), and drug exposures were excluded.
Also posterior uveitis, keratoconjunctivitis and vasculitis Liver 12 40 - 70% have granulomas, up to 30% have hepatomegaly, and significant dysfunction is rare Nervous 5 - 10 Any part of the nervous system system can be involved (most common is unilateral facial nerve palsy and meningitis) Bone marrow 4 - 20 Anaemia and leukopenia common but not diagnostic Blood 4 - 11 Hypercalciuria
in up to 40%, renal calculi in 10% Cardiac 5 - 10 Up to 76% have cardiac involvement at autopsy Bone/joint 0.