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The Greek meaning of hypallage is "interchange, exchange"; the most common example is "her beauty's face.
Yet the Dickensian hypallage is not the same as Walter Shandy's.
Here are some examples of epithet-transfer hypallage in poetry, before and after Dickens.
Hypallage thus differs from but is often blended with other tropes.
Dickens's use of hypallage is likewise a kind of shorthand, a compression of multiple semantic strands in a brief phrase, to be perceived as a sudden expansion of the phrase's indirect reference.
There may be various explanations why hypallage is an artistically appropriate trope for A Tale of Two Cities.
The former effect, the Spencerian shortcut to semantic complexity, makes Dickens's hypallage overlap with the kind of enthymeme in which some of the terms are omitted out of respect for the reader's ability to follow the logic unaided: thus, "We were weak, therefore worthless," in the Aeolus episode Ulysses (179), elides the ironic middle proposition, "to be weak is to be (considered) worthless" (see Toker, "Narrative Enthymeme" 165-66).
9) Moreover, by contrast with the demand for cognitive response made by syllepsis, hypallage creates an extra degree of freedom: the reader has the choice not only to pause and sort out the strands of its meaning but also to bracket the quest for conceptual unraveling, suspending cognitive diligence in favor of a more passive enjoyment of the sheer potentiality of meaning.
Indeed, one of the effects of hypallage in A Tale of Two Cities is the suggestion that much more can be said on the subject in question than is actually being said.
The hypallage in the passage is, of course, the old clerk's "surprised spectacles.
Tellson's bank plays the role of the responsible adult throughout the novel--this is one of the meanings implied in the hypallage "responsible waistcoat," where "responsible" replaces the more normative "respectable" and evokes the secrets and confidences received into the House's paternal waistcoat and kept responsibly in its respectable chests.
La subtile hypallage qu'aucune traduction ne saurait negliger remplace ici le couteau par la blessure.
Moving from a state of affairs pertaining to one domain, to a state of affairs pertaining to another, by means of an epistemological hypallage, all fields of knowledge are levelled out:
11) A "tower of blood" is a hypallage that implies transparency; the effort of ascending can be viewed.
a) Tout d'abord, il souligne le fait de la contiguite de deux sensations, sur leur coexistence dans le meme contexte mental (17), a commencer par des hypallages (18).
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