in the pediatric age group are generally of three types.
There are various reasons for scrotum to become swollen ranging from hydrocele
the commonest cause, to some rare causes like malignant tumours of the epididymis.
A minority of them opted to undergo corrective surgeries for phimosis, varicoceles, hydroceles
, and experienced 7 times more emotional distress than those who had not undergone any.
Single-port laparoscopic extraperitoneal repair of pediatric inguinal hernias and hydroceles
by using modified Kirschner pin: A novel technique.
Risk factors for surgical problems in children * Prematurity (for inguinal hernias) * Previous abdominal surgery * Early weaning on to solids (intussusception) * Henoch-Schonlein purpura (testicular torsion, intussusception) * Viral diseases eg, influenza (appendicitis) * Recurrent ear infections (mastoiditis) * Family history (pyloric stenosis, inguinal hernias) * Genetic syndromes (eg, duodenal atresia in Down's syndrome) * Absence of breastfeeding (pyloric stenosis) * Male sex (inguinal hernias, pyloric stenosis, hydrocele
, hypospadias) Box 2.
The majority of patients present with a hydrocele
and some patients present with a testicular tumour.
impairs productive capacity and large ones can have a disastrous effect on work performance of people affected.
are extremely uncommon in females, the most commonly described one being that of the canal of Nuck.
are benign swellings in the scrotum that occur frequently in boys.
However, if the patient doesn't have a normal cremasteric reflex, it doesn't mean he has testicular torsion, because it's a nonspecific finding that can happen with trauma, infection, hydroceles
, and torsion of the appendix testis.
The embryonic etiology of pediatric hernias and hydroceles
is a three-step process, Dr.
Abnormalities in the biking group included 25 scrotal calculi, 22 epididymal cysts, 14 epididymal calcifications, 13 testicular calcifications, 6 varicoceles, 5 hydroceles
, and 3 testicular microlithiases.
Infection, inflammation and even tumours of the testicle can all cause hydroceles
and, as a general rule, I like to drain the fluid off so that I can examine the underlying testicle to check it's OK.
There are multiple known complications following scrotal surgery for hydroceles
, including infection, abscess formation, hematoma, orchalgia, and treatment failures.
High frequency ultrasonography was invaluable in demonstrating normal size of testes and epididymis in presence of large hydroceles
, in excluding any cause for secondary hydrocele