Based on the random-point data collected from 184 PEM1 wetlands in 2008, the percent coverage by broad vegetation classes was, on average, 26% grasses (excluding rice cutgrass), 24% rushes, 12% cattails, 12% sedges (excluding hardstem bulrush
), 7% Himalayan blackberry, 6% forbs, 5% hardstem bulrush
, 3% willows and 1% rice cutgrass.
He explains that in some rivers, finding live submerged vegetation is the answer, while on others, stands of hardstem bulrush
harbor the hungriest muskies.