adults mate on a host and, after the fully fed female drops from the host animal to the ground, she lays from 2000 to 18,000 eggs and subsequently dies.
More research on the ecology of hard ticks
will help validate or invalidate these hypotheses.
display sexual dimorphism, males and females look obviously different (Figure 1), and the blood-fed females are capable of enormous expansion.
scapularis tick-borne emerging infections in the eastern United States, such as human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Powassan virus disease (Powassan virus), and hard tick
relapsing fever (Borrelia miyamotoi).
Identification of an uncultivable Borrelia species in hard tick
Ambylomma americanum: possible agent of Lyme disease-like illness.
The main vector of Lyme disease in Italy is the hard tick
(Ixodes ricinus), a species widespread in mountain regions populated by wild ungulates (2).
There are 3 subtypes of TBEV, the European subtype, transmitted by the hard tick
Ixodes ricinus, and the Far Eastern and Siberian subtypes.
The Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Figure), is a Nearctic and Neotropical hard tick
found in coastal areas of the southern United States, with inland range extensions in Kansas, Oklahoma, and some other states.
have mouthparts with recurved teeth that allow them to firmly anchor themselves to hosts while feeding with the assistance of a cement-like substance secreted by the salivary glands.