This was proved by the hamadryad
, who, being exceedingly fond of mischief, threw another handful of acorns before the twenty- two newly-restored people; whereupon down they wallowed in a moment, and gobbled them up in a very shameful way.
The oracle was an augury; it spoke through fire, water, earth and air, the oak tree there and its branches in the wind, the tongues of the Hamadryads
, the surf and spray of the Nereids and nymphs, Sibyls, the Muses, the grace of the Charites and the world as it splinters into different voices, numberless voices and is torn between what they say and what they are: until Dionysius the Areopagite unites the four elements once again and transforms them into a fifth, the quintessence of the highest heaven: the Empyream.
By contrast, in "Song of the Redwood-Tree," Whitman replaces imagery derived from soil chemistry and Christianity with images drawn from animism--dryads and hamadryads
, the spirits of the wood.
A California song, A prophecy and indirection, a thought impalpable to breathe as air A chorus of dryads, fading, departing, or hamadryads
departing, A murmuring, fateful, giant voice, out of the earth and sky, Voice of a mighty dying tree in the redwood forest dense (351)
The Oreads were nymphs of mountains, hills, and grottoes; the Napaeae (from napee , "dell") and the Alseids (from alsos , "grove") were nymphs of glens and groves; the dryads and hamadryads
presided over woods, forests, and trees.