yellow, hind marginal bristles on abdomen distinct H.
knob and distal half of stem dark; proximal half of stem pale yellow.
uniformly pale yellow, knob brown, with areas of sensillae at base.
uniformly pale yellow, with areas of sensillae at base.
Hawk moths use their wing sensors much like flies use halteres
, special organs behind the wing that serve as a biological gyroscope, sensing the insect's body rotation during flight.
The non-functional wings are reduced to setulose, strap-like appendages and the halteres
are likewise reduced to barely visible nodular processes (Kirk-Spriggs et al.
Lia Gaertner , Advisory Board Member, is a principal at Halteres
Associates, a bioscience consulting company.
Bumble bees, like any other bees, have no halteres
(which are modified wings), but rather two pairs of wings.
All this is possible because of two small, vibrating sense organs called halteres
, which millions of years ago evolved from what used to be a pair of hind wings.
There is some evidence from vase-paintings that suggests that athletes may have used halteres
, or jumping-weights, for general strength training, but this is hardly comparable to the variety of equipment and intensely focused weight-training available in the modern gymnasium.