Cultured people have many other gymnastic exercises and games which were originally devised for physical strengthening.
The credit for the introduction of gymnastic exercises into Hungary in an organized form is due to a Frenchman, Ignacz Clair, a former captain of Napoleon's guards who arrived in Pest in the mid-1820s.
Although the literary and pedagogical initiatives to introduce gymnastic exercises as collective sport preceded the institutionalization of rowing and fencing, the two other emerging new sports of the period by nearly a century, the beginnings of its organized practice coincided with these of rowing and fencing.
The most evident feature common to gymnastic exercises, rowing and fencing--which becomes obvious if we compare them with horse racing, one of the most preferred leisure-time activities of the highest social strata in the first part of the 19th century--is that they are human sports.
Another important common characteristic of fencing, rowing and gymnastic exercises is the far smaller risk implied by them as compared to earlier activities such as hunting.
Gymnastic exercises can be considered as a kind of umbrella sport; or to be more precise, in the first half of the 19th century when the term "sport" was yet as little used in the European continent, gymnastics and gymnastic exercises meant for most people what we today understand by the word sport.
But while fencing and rowing were practised relatively rarely, gymnastic exercises came gradually into the focus of the middle-class citizen's way of life.
In the mid-19th century, gymnastic exercises denote the collective body-building and training exercises carried out in the presence of a master or instructor.
The Enlightenment and the spiritual sources of gymnastic exercises
This study explores the ways that those discourses feminized the nexus between imperatives of good posture and related gymnastic exercises, which, respectively, also were required of and at times were performed by men.
In addition to exercise gained in domestic duties, all students will be expected to engage in regular gymnastic exercises at least twice each week.
Both the habits of system, order, precision, and regularity that they meant to impress relative to domestic rectitude as well as the temporal adjustments and attentiveness called for by gymnastic exercises that collectively spurred comprehensive rectitude may have tendered means for equipping women to accommodate the changing work rhythms of an increasingly commercialized and industrialized market--means to attune their domestic work to, and to synchronize it with, the tempos of time clocks and mechanical regularity that orchestrated the routines of their spouses and the schedules of the modernizing world.
Gymnastic exercises that explicitly cultivated postural rectitude were not the only maneuvers that potentially inculcated both adjustments to temporal imperatives and an awareness of time and timing.