By the Renaissance, secular corporations expanded, with merchant guildsmen
in Italy using such business devices as compound interest, double-entry bookkeeping, and even expense accounts.
The book's chronological limits and topical coverage mirror the state of the primary sources ("abundant between 1580 and 1640"), including the archives of the municipal governing body, the Consell de Cent--where Barcelona's guildsmen
enjoyed representation alongside the city's oligarchs--as well as records of the principality's Generalitat, and of the royal administration and courts (xiii).
The master guildsmen
, the city council and the conventual clergy were opposed to the Plan Gremial.
Seth Lerer's 'The Chaucerian Critique of Medieval Theatricality' is the one essay that aims to discuss both Chaucer and the drama, but his equation of The Miller's Tale with guild plays and Chaucer's 'silent' Guildsmen
, as opposed to Ricardian city pageantry as represented by The Knight's Tale is too glib, especially since the latter was almost certainly written some years before Richard II's entry into London in 1392, of which much is made.
Prauer concludes, then, with an ambiguous, perhaps even sinister chord: an economy "free" to construct itself, and its workers' lives, around the material "satisfaction of ever more needs" becomes in its way a greater "dictatorship" than that of More's hierarchy of overseers and guildsmen
fixed in social amber.
When craftsmen in Japan made katabira for ninjas and the guildsmen
of Europe forged chainmail for knights, they were unaware that their armor reflected an ancient biological design used by bacterial viruses.
In the great Peasants' Revolt of 1381, the abbey was again sacked and the prior hunted down and killed, apparently with the tacit approval of Bury's merchant guildsmen
Before Calvin, the Lutheran Reformation in the majority of German cities was accompanied by a desire, especially among artisans and guildsmen
, to return to the original principles of the constitutional community (Gemeinde, universitas) and of civic brotherhood (Moeller 1972; Ozment 1975).
Coffin analyzes how various groups - guildsmen
and women, male and female trade unionists, Catholic social reformers and socialists, needlewomen and feminists, statisticians and storytellers, advertisers and merchandisers - understood women's work, in light of the social history of needleworkers from the mid-eighteenth century until 1915.
62) Such policies were not confirmed to coastal ports, and occur as privileges of guildsmen
or burgesses elsewhere.
The members and leaders of the guilds had a strong sense of their independence vis-a-vis the government which "may help to explain the support of many guildsmen
for the 'Urabi revolt, wherein Egyptians challenged the viceregal leadership as tyrannical and corrupt".
The mayor was greeted upon landing by a larger assemblage of guildsmen
, and mounted a "triumphal chariot" for a procession through the city streets to Guildhall.
Millers were indeed involved in the Rising, but that scarcely justifies the apparent assigning of John the Carpenter to the peasantry (270-2), especially as the Guildsmen
, with their own carpenter among them, are seen as firmly bourgeois.