In risk analysis of ship accidents, especially collisions, groundings (include grounding [impact with individual shoals and islands in the fairway], and strandings [impact with the coastline] (Kristiansen 2005)), in addition to statistical methods there are methods that are based on the calculation of the actual number of accidents from their potential number.
The model in this paper, used for comparing sailing routes with regard to the possibility of groundings, will be based on the calculation of the potential number of groundings.
Total expected number of groundings over a unit of time:
they do not take into account the impact of proximity of the coastline parallel to the course on the potential number of groundings.
ub] that will define the impact of the coastline vicinity on the potential number of groundings.
There is a methodology which takes into account the high level of uncertainty and randomness of groundings.
An overall view on groundings categorizes the accidents in two major groups:
Grounding on soft sea beds, so-called Soft Groundings.
Grounding on hard bottoms so-called Hard Groundings.
Ships' groundings can have devastating effects on the marine environment.
To facilitate the alignment of these offshore routes, the proposal also extends the vessel traffic separation lanes in the western end of the Santa Barbara Channel and rotates the southern-most approach into San Francisco Bay further offshore to reduce the risk of grounding.
Slater also noted that routing vessels further offshore will provide more time for responding to disabled vessels to prevent them from grounding.
A number of flights were cancelled on Wednesday (12 March) by US carrier Southwest Airlines Co due to the grounding
of 43 aircraft.
the planes means American will operate only two fleet types to Europe - Boeing 767ERs and McDonnell Douglas MD-11s.