They included: (a) "quasi" grounded theory research
examining the most effective musical and communication skills used to communicate with people with significant brain impairment (O'Callaghan & Brown, 1989; O'Callaghan & Turnbull, 1987, 1988,) (3); (b) modified grounded theory research
projects uncovering song themes written by palliative care patients (O'Callaghan 1996), and delineating the effect of a music therapist's introduction on oncology patients' engagement (O'Callaghan & Colegrove, 1998); and (c) constructivist research examining varied perceptions about oncologic music therapy's effect (O'Callaghan, 2001a, 2001b, 2004, 2005, 2007; O'Callaghan & Hiscock, 2007; O'Callaghan & McDermott, 2004, 2007).
More specifically, concepts of grounded theory research
such as theoretical sampling, comparative thinking and coding, provide us with formal tools to make sure that our models are relevant and grounded in data from mental models and documentation from stakeholders in a particular problem.