In both managed and natural forests, moose had only occasionally impacted Norway spruce and grey alder.
On the other hand, grey alder, not commonly browsed by moose, is ranked lower in numbers per hectare than moose-selected trees (Finnish Forest Research Institute 2001).
In Estonia, Tullus and others  reported LAI for a natural 18-year-old grey alder stand to be 3.
It has been shown that grey alder can cover a major part of its N demand via biological fixation [39-42].
Budgets of nitrogen fluxes in riparian grey alder forests // Arch.
Productivity, buffering capasity and resources of grey alder forests in Estonia // Swed.
Dry matter amounts and increment in 21- to 91-year-old common alder and grey alder and some practical implications // Ibid.
Sustainable forest management in grey alder stands as energy and buffer forests in Estonia // Proc.
2]) fixation in relation to nitrogen fertilisation of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.