Giant cell and granulomatous myocarditis
necessitating cardiac transplantation: clinical, gross, and histopathological findings.
We describe a case of fatal granulomatous myocarditis caused by C albicans in a 20-day-old canary (Serinus canaria).
Key words: avian pathology, granulomatous myocarditis, histochemistry, molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction, Candida albicans, avian, canary, Serinus canaria
The primary histologic differential diagnosis for cardiac sarcoidosis includes giant cell myocarditis, idiopathic (nonspecific) granulomatous myocarditis
, tuberculous myocarditis, fungal myocarditis, and Whipple disease.
Since GCM was described as distinct from granulomatous myocarditis
by Tesluk (2) in 1956, its diagnosis and management has evolved tremendously with the advent of endomyocardial biopsy and establishment of an international registry, despite the relative scarcity of cases.