Is it justified--and if so, to what extent and in what sense--to assert that definiteness as a grammatical category exists in Chinese?
Whether definiteness is a grammatical category in a particular language depends on how the notion is defined.
Poetics of grammar based on one or the other word class or grammatical category
seems to be common in many languages.
According to this viewpoint, codification of epistemic modality is not a basic function of the grammatical evidential, which is an independent grammatical category and not an epistemic (or other) subcategory of modality (see [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] 1994 : 98-99; Aikhenvald 2000 : 4, 42, 57).
In spite of the homonymy most grammars of Bulgarian consider forms of the oblique mood sufficiently marked (when compared to other categories) to assign them an individual grammatical category.
Although they form a closed grammatical category
in the language, aspect markers are not phonologically distinguishable from monosyllabic members of lexical categories--they are not unstressed and do not show any phonetic modification such as vowel reduction, and they are of similar duration to forms that belong to lexical categories.
To wit: grammatical categories may have three types of function, principal, secondary, and "neutral"; under conditions where the number of logical categories requiring expression exceeds the number of grammatical catego ries available to express them, a grammatical category will be chosen to function "in neutral" in order to express the needed logical category.
The use of the available grammatical category iptaras to express the new logical category "priority+posteriority in time" can be described in terms of the -ta-infix alone.
A form of analogy that the author returns to in chapter 4 is prototypicalization: a reanalyzed structure is likened to the prototype of the grammatical category that served as a model for the reanalysis.
It only contains forms that have undergone some intermediate degree of grammaticalization, because they are more interesting from the perspective of the synchronic coexistence of forms with different degrees of grammaticalization within a grammatical category (p.
11) The notion "Subject", as distinct from the notion "NP", designates a grammatical function rather than a grammatical category
This is where all the morphemes go, at least those with semantic content,(5) and where the particular characteristics of each morpheme are listed: its form, grammatical category
, semantic features (such as the animacy or inanimacy of a noun, or the requirement that a verb's object be animate, as is the case for frighten), and any other unpredictable facts about the morpheme.
Cross-linguistic studies of the grammatical category
perfect or anterior have raised uncertainties about the importance of the notion of current relevance in characterizing this category (Klein 1992).
Gomez-Imbert's analysis focuses on nominal classification, a basic grammatical category
that is intricately tied to human categorization.
She shows that the degree of fusion between a stem and an inflectional affix and consequently the extent to which the shape of a stem changes across the various dimensions of a paradigm diagrams the degree of "semantic relevance" of each grammatical category
to the meaning of the lexical item (1985a: 36-37, 1985b: 26-28, 1988: 129-131).