Grain overload was not considered a differential diagnosis by NDGF employees until results of the necropsies were received.
The acute rumenitis was suspected to be biochemical in origin, with grain overload a strong possibility.
Laminitis, such as the severe chronic case documented in case A, is a common chronic sequel to previous grain overload in both domestic ruminants and horses.
Grain overload is considered a common cause of enterotoxemia, though other less likely causes such as E.
The history of case C being observed by the warden as healthy in a field the day prior to its euthanasia, its clinical signs of recumbancy and kicking, and the postmortem findings of acute rumenitis and hemorrhagic enteritis are highly indicative of grain overload.