Just as women who have been seduced are often driven into poverty and from there into prostitution, Austen strongly suggests that the law's treatment of women who cannot or choose not to marry drives many of them into poverty, misery, and degradation, whether they live as spinsters, as governesses
, or as prostitutes.
Solodiankina initially avoids all mention of governesses and instead outlines cultural theories concerning acculturation, culture shock, integration, and so on.
Like Andreev, Solodiankina is careful to examine the question of nationality, in this case the question of which governesses should be regarded as "foreign.
Lucy Lyttleton, nearly fifteen, had already seen governesses, including a French Mademoiselle, come and go, when she described in her diary the arrival of Miss Smith at Hagley Hall in June 1856:
There were tales of woe from early schoolroom years, when some governesses used their discretion to punish excessively.
While I read governesses
and possessed children as stock figures of the period, in contrast to the ambiguous ghosts of the tale, Bell, s and Beidler's work suggests that corruptible children and crazed governesses
had already become familiar aspects of contemporary occult fictions.
Among the better-known Victorian fictional governesses, Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre (1847), Anne Bronte's Agnes Grey (1847), and the main character of Henry James's much later Turn of the Screw (1898) tell the story of the governess's humiliations at the hands of condescending employers, sneering servants, and malicious pupils from the governess's point of view.
The census of 1861 numbers 24,770 governesses in England, and the British Library catalog includes hundreds of titles under the subject heading "governess," including novels, memoirs, advice books, and diaries, testament to a contrary fascination with a seemingly mundane and predictable figure of middle-class female labor.
In fact, governesses had such potency as imagined agents of harsh discipline and domestic disruption that they could be exploited by other women in a household, however playfully, to secure children's loyalty.
There, in company with his numerous children, their French and German governesses
, and distinguished writers and artists, Alexander created his own rural idyll.
Murebbiye (1897; "The Governess") was an attack on the custom of entrusting children to the care of often domineering governesses
From Cradle to Crown: British Nannies and Governesses
at the World's Royal Courts.
Admittedly, there have been other great Hollywood governesses
cut from the same lace: Joan Fontaine as Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre, Deborah Kerr as Anna in The King and I or as the mysterious Miss Madrigal in Chalk Garden.
Women's relationship to the home and to homelessness occupies the last third of this book; the essays demonstrate what this meant to Flora Tristan, the Saint-Simoniennes, domestic servants and governesses
5) Despite the hopes of many Victorians, as of 1851 at least one wife in four and two single women (or widows) in three remained part of the workforce--as milliners, dressmakers, shopkeepers, innkeepers, governesses
, and teachers.