A type of blowpipe and a type of goniometer
are named for Hirschwald (Burchard 1994, 1998); in the case of the sclerometer, however, precedence is given overwhelmingly to Franz.
reliability is generally good to excellent (r = 0.
Pre-intervention assessment of pain was done using visual analogue scale (VAS) and range of movements was assessed using universal goniometer
A 3-axis motorized goniometer
features continuously adjustable [sz]1 (-60[degrees] to 60[degrees]), [sz]2 (-60[degrees] to 60[degrees]), and e (-180[degrees] to 180[degrees]) angles.
Ankle JPS was measured using a pedal goniometer
consisting of four parts: a pedal with two clamps and pointer/ a back piece with a protractor/ a leg fixator and a metal base.
The purpose of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a total passive turnout (TPT) test taken with a goniometer
The development of the goniometer
reflects not only the history of an exact science but also that of technology and industry.
Lumbosacral angle was measured by goniometer
9) introduced a digital goniometer
as an inexpensive, reliable and valid method of measuring functional ROM of the ankle, with the patient's foot on the floor.
8 The angle of knee flexion represents hamstring tightness and can be measured with a goniometer
after active knee extension with the hip stabilized at 90 degrees flexion while lying supine.
The opening and slope of the ellipse or line is also dependent upon the goniometer
geometry selected, i.
The most common photometric measurement systems used to perform measurements in accordance with LM-79 utilize an integrating sphere, a goniometer
The examiner, using a simple goniometer
, such that all the volunteers performed each movement, obtained the flexion and extension measurements on the lumbar spine consecutively twice.
Nowadays, for determination of joint impairments, such as elbow joint, several devices and techniques are used, such as linear measures of distances by a ruler or tape, palpation, observation estimations, photography, goniometer
and digital tools (3).
The measurement was done on a flat surface using a standard goniometer
, the values were expressed in degrees.