albus populations, gnathostomes
were only collected from swamp eels from the Tampa population (Table 1).
phylogeny revisited: multiple method consensus.
To address the question of whether deployment and function of lamprey cognates of gnathostome
neural crest genes are evolutionarily conserved, we performed moderate-throughput transcriptome analysis, identifying more than 50 genes involved in neural crest formation in lamprey.
Myelin basic proteins (MBPs) are abundant in the myelin sheaths of gnathostome
central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) (Waehneldt et al.
Because these two species have independent evolutionary histories covering hundreds of millions of years, mRNAs common to OL processes in both species likely represent proteins recruited to form the original myelin sheaths in the common gnathostome
Cranial muscles of the anurans Leiopelma hochstetteri and Ascaphus truei and the homologies of the manibular adductors in Lissamphibia and other Gnathostomes
Among living gnathostomes
, the two major groups are chondrichthyans (shark, rays) and osteichthyans (bony jawed vertebrates).
Similarities between the two branches of gnathostomes
provide an insight into the last common ancestor of jawed vertebrates.
The group gnathostomes
, meaning "jaw-mouths," includes tens of thousands of living vertebrate species, ranging from fish and sharks to birds, reptiles, mammals and humans.
Duguay et al  studied the Divergence of insulin-like growth factors I and II in the elasmobranch Squalus acanthias and observed that the prototypical IGF molecule duplicated and diverged in an ancestor of the extant gnathostomes
For example, humans are included in the following nested clades (using the informal names): eukaryotes, animals, deuterostomes, vertebrates, gnathostomes
, tetrapods, amniotes, mammals, eutherians, primates, monkeys, apes, and great apes (see Dawkins, 2004 for more information on the ancestry of humans).