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flower and the subsequent 10-16 glumes bear staminate flowers (Thomas
Large quantities of damaged or distorted grain were identified as Triticum and since no free-threshing wheat species were recovered, it is reasonable to assume that these remains represent glume wheat, most likely emmer.
In species of Scleria, the glumes are disposed distichously in the pistillate spikelets, while the subandrogynous spikelet, staminate spikelet, and androgynous spikelet have one proximal portion with glumes disposed distichously and one distal portion with glumes disposed spirally (Camelbeke, 2002; Ahumada & Vegetti, 2009); this arrangement of the glumes is also characteristic of the bisexual spikelets of Abildgaardia ovata.
Shams-ud-din  reported that spikes per plant, grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, harvest index, glumes weight and biological yield were directly related to the grain yield of wheat.
1a) and many spirally placed glumes subtending (or not) a flower (Fig.
A wide range of building earth was examined microscopically; all contained impressions of fragmented glumes, lemma, palea, awns and spikelet bases from wild barley, wild einkorn and wild rye (Figure 10).
Glumes are spirally or distichously arranged in the spikelets, apart from some reduced species in which the arrangement is obscure.
This glume-wheat chaff is found in most samples in a very fragmentary state, unidentifiable to species, which is compatible with the state of preservation of einkorn glumes and spikelets surviving in dung after having been experimentally fed to goats; however, further work is needed before the distinction between digested and undigested chaff is reliably detectable (Valamoti & Charles 2005).
In grasses it is a matter of convenience and tradition to identify as a spikelet the combination of one or more florets (each comprising a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens, and pistil, or in certain grasses one or more of these parts absent) with two proximally situated bracts, the glumes (sometimes one or both absent).
The contrast between the high density of Oryza glume cells and the low counts of Oryza leaf cells observed in the Diaotonghuan samples suggests that more Oryza glumes (i.
1995) studied the chemical basis for differential allelopathic potential of Sorghum hybrids and reported that the concentration of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids differed in seeds, glumes, leaves, culms, and roots of the three Sorghum hybrids.
The initial stages of plant processing cannot be reconstructed because grass glumes, stems and other inedible plant parts are found in very small numbers, indicating that cleaning was done somewhere else.
Protecting the seed-grain over winter would also reduce the pressure for tough, protecting glumes, ultimately allowing the emergence of naked forms.
As we have not recovered the glumes, it is difficult to identify the remains as the cultivated variety.
Studies in the 1960s also described these 'hollow swellings with acute tips' (Watanabe 1968), or short distinctive hair cells, from rice glumes.
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