1,2) Isolated Pierre Robin syndrome (PRS) is a triad comprising retromicrognathia, glossoptosis
and posterior U-shaped cleft.
Craniofacial morphology represents another mechanism by which genetics may influence the development of OSA, the bony and soft tissue structures that are seen from one generation to another in different families, including specific craniofacial disorders, for example, Pierre-Robin syndrome, these patients have micrognathia, glossoptosis
, and cleft palate, the tongue tends to prolapse backward, leading to airway obstruction, and hence, they are more prone to suffer from OSA (39).
The most common presentation is Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) which consists of respiratory distress, micrognathia and glossoptosis
with or without a cleft palate.
On physical examination, micrognathia and upper airway obstruction caused by glossoptosis
The Robin sequence typically consists of micrognathia (abnormally small mandible, or lower jaw); glossoptosis
(downward and posterior displacement of the tongue, which appears larger due to the small mandible); and cleft palate.